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JuanFe 

 

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 1 Documentation of case

After the announcement has been made to leave the examination room, you will have 10 minute complete the documentation of each case. If you leave the room early, you may use the extra time for decimation , bit be aware that you may not re-enter the patient room once you have left.

For each case, document the most relevant hisser and physical examination findings. Note that you are not expected to perform of document a comprehensive history and physical examination, and you should emphasized the most important positive and negative findings that would be needed for medical decision making. You will than list the most likely diagnosis (up to 3 ), along with the clinical findings that support each possibility. Finally, you will list any diagnosis test that are needed to rule in or rule out each possible diagnosis. You may include any physical examination maneuvers that are prohibited in USMLE Step 2 CS (eg , female breast examination) , bit you should not include treatment options , referral/consultations , or patient dispositions (eg , admit to hospital).

Your documentation will be reviewed and scored by trained raters who are also licensed physicians. Factors   considered in scoring include:

. Use of correct medical terminology
. Listing the possible diagnosis in order of likelihood
. Providing appropriate supporting findings (i.e., include only clinical findings form the history and physical examination you actually performed)

Throughout the documentation of each case, it is recommended that you remain as focused and specific as possible . If a component of the examination is normal , you should state your specific findings ; for example , you would write “ lungs show good air movement with on crackles , dullness , or egophony “ rather than “lung examination is normal.” For diagnostic studies, you should also be specific; for example , you would write “ electrolytes , glucose , creatinine : rather than “ metabolic panel. “ A list of standard abbreviations is provided in this section; if you are uncertain about the use of a certain abbreviation, write in full term.

You findings must be entered into a standardized documentation template. you may choose to document your findings in either a narrative format or a “bullet pain t” list , but information should be presented in a logical , coherent order. The history and physical examination fields allow a maximum of 950 characters (15 lines 0 each , and a progress bar is provided at the bottom for you to judge how much space is reminding. In the data interpretation section , you will enter each possible diagnosis along with up to 8 rows of history and physical examination findings to support each. You may also enter up to  8 diagnostic studies (note that some cases may not require any diagnostic studies).

The following sections provide guidance for documentation of each case . Additional information is available in the History Taking section. Note that the chief complaint will generally be provided at the beginning of the encounter , but you should be alert for more important issues that the patient may not immediately disclose . the subsequent section of the history and examination should be intelligently presented to tell a coherent story of the patient’s primary problem.

Documentation of history

Patient identification and chief complaint (cc)
. Age, gender , and any relevant ethnic or social identifiers
. Primary reason for the encounter

History of present illness (HPI)
Include all the following features that apply:
. Location of primary symptom
. Quality/ character
. Severity (numeric or descriptive)
. Onset/duration
. Course over time
. Triggering/ modifying factors
. Context
. Associated symptoms (both positive and negative)

Review of systems
. Include pertinent positive and negative symptoms
. Focus on related and adjacent systems

Past medical history (PMH)
. Significant chronic and past medical conditions
. Significant psychiatric conditions
. Birth ad developmental history in children
. Reproductive history (as appropriate)

Past surgical history (PSH)
. Previous operations (including cesarean section)

Medications
. Prescription and  over-the-counter medications

Allergies
. Drug and environmental allergies (including the patient’s  reaction)

Family history
. Emphasize first-degree relatives (include more distant relatives only if relevant)
. If space is lim,tied , list only condition directly related to the patient’s problem
. If space is every limited and family dose not affect decision making , write : “ FHx noncontributory”

Social history
. Occupation(if present)
. Living situation and support system
. Tobacco , alcohol , illicit drugs
. Outside stressors, if pertinent (eg, “ recently homeless”)

Documentation of physical examination

Begin with a list of vital signs. Give a brief comment about the patient;s general appearance , and then provide a systematic list of physical examination findings. Include all abnormal and any relevant normal findings but only those that you personally noted during the examination.
Emphasize the primary system and nay adjacent/related systems . Note that simulated patins in Step 2 CS may have feigned examination findings (eg, abdominal tenderness ) or real abnormalities (eg , visible skin lesion) that are apparent on examination; both should be documented as appropriate.

You may be give a telephone encounter , in which the pasting is not present in the room , In this cases , leave the physical examination section blank.

The following table includes suggested terminology for normal findings , although you should include additional , specific negative findings that narrow the differential diagnosis . Normal findings in systems not related to the patient’s primary problems that do not factor into medical decision making do not need to be documented . However , any findings that you reference in the diagnosis section of the documentation should be included.

Normal examination findings

- HEENT

Head
. Normocephalic and atraumatic

Eyes
. Pupils equally round and reactive to light (PERRLA)
. Visual acuity 20/20 with intact visual fields
. Extra ocular muscles intact (EOMI)
. Funds without papilledema, lesions, or exudates
. Conjunctiva without erythema
. No icterus

Ear
. Pinnae without inflammation or tenderness
. Tympanic membranes intact without erythema or effusion
. Weber midline , Rinne with air conduction > bone conduction
. Hearing grossly intact bilaterally

Nose
. Septum midline with patent nares
. No nasal polyps or lesions
. No sinus tenderness to palpation

Throat
. Oropharynx clear without tonsillar erythema or exudates
. Uvula midline
. Normal dentition and gums without ulcer or lesion

- Neck

. Supple without lymphadenopathy or thyromegaly
. Carotid pulse 2+ without jugular venous distension (JVD)
. Trachea midline without accessory muscle use

- Lungs/chest

. No chest wall lesion s, scars , or tenderness to palpation
. Fremitus symmetrical
. Resonant to percussion bilaterally
. Clear to auscultation bilaterally with vascular breath sounds
. No wheezes , crackles , or rhonchi

- Heart

. No visible heaves or lifts
. Point of maximal impulse at 5th intercostal space in left midclavicular line
. Normal S1 and S2 without murmurs , gallops , or rubs

- Abdomen

. Non distended without scars , bruises , or visible pulsations
. Normative bowel sounds throughout without bruits
. Tympanic to percussion in all 4 quadrants
. Soft and contender with no rebound tenderness or peritoneal signs
. No hepatosplenomegaly
. No costalvertebral angel tenderness

- Extremities

. No cyanosis ,clubbing , or edema
. Pulses 2+ bilaterally throughout

- Neurologic

. Patient is alert and oriented to person , place , and time
. Cranial nerves II-XII intact
. Motor strength 5/5 bilaterally in all muscle groups
. Sensation grossly intact bilaterally
. Deep tendon reflexes (DTR) 2+ bilaterally
. Gait fluid with normal speed and balance
. Normal Romberg test

- Musculoskeletal

. No pain or tenderness to palpation in all joints
. Normal range of motion (ROM) in all joints
. No abnormalities in spine or par spinal tenderness to palpation

Documentation of diagnosis

List up to 3 possible diagnosis for the patient’s primary problem with the most likely diagnosis first. Succinctly list supporting findings form the history and physical examination. In the “Diagnostic Study/ Studies” section , list the diagnostic tests (if any_ that are needed to rule in or rule out the possible diagnosis you have listed , as well as nay tests necessary to fully characterize the condition . However , do not include any unnecessary or “ routine “ tests , and do not take a “ Shotgun” approach of wording  low-yield tests to rule out unlikely disorders. A list of the most common diagnostic studies for Step 2 CS is included in the Case Investigation section of the Step 2 CS  course

The following guiltiness are recommended for documentation of the diagnostic studies

. List tests in order of priority
. Use specific terms, and only use approved abbreviations
. Write related test on a single line (eg , urinalysis and culture; CT of the abdomen and pelvis)
. Do to include referral or consultations.
. Do not include patient disposition (eg , send to hospital).
. Do not include treatment or drug prescriptions.
. If any of the prohibit examinations (eg, female breath examination) are required, you may list them here.

Example documentation of patient encounter

The following example of case documentation illustrates the clinical reasoning and level if detail appropriate for Step 2 CS . Additional examples are provide in the Step 2 CS Practice Materials section of the USMLE website. In addition w e have provided a list of common scenario in the Sample Cases section of the Step 2 CS course , Which include suggestions for the most important clinical findings that show;ld be documented in each case.

History

A 21 -year-old woman comes for the evaluation of an acute cough , She has had 5 days go a moderate nonproductive cough with associated wheezing but uno dyspnea . Symptoms have worsened in the last 24 hours . Symptoms  are worse when outside , and are triggered by deep breaths. The patient is not using ant inhalers and has no history of asthma.
Review f the system : Positive for nasal congestion and rhinorrhea . Negative for fever , chills , otalgia , sinus pain , cervical adenopathy . sore throat , palpitations , pedal edema , and heartburn.
PMHx : Positive for seasonal allergies . No hospitalizations.
Meds : None
Allergies : NKA
FHx : Sister with asthma diagnosis age 18
SHx : Single , College student living alone . No tobacco , alcohol , or illicit drugs.

Physical examinations

T 36.8, BP 118/76, HR 86 , R 22
Patient a[p[eras comfortable without labored breathing or other signs of distress. Nasa; mucosa edematous and pale ,. oropharynx clear without tonsillar erythema or exudates . Heart shows regular rate and rhythm ; normal S1 and S2 with no murmurs , gallops , or rubs . No pedal deem a. sings show mild tachypnea withy np accessory muscle use . no audible wheezes , crackles or rubs , no dulness or egophony . Abdomen soft and no distended with normative bowel sounds

Data interpretation

Diagnosis #1
Asthma exacerbation(new diagnosis)

History findings
. cough and wheezing
. worse when outdoors
. history of allergies
. family history of asthma

Physical exam findings
. mild tachypnea
. no signs of consolidation

Diagnosis #2
Acute viral bronchitis

History findings
. cough and wheezing
. nasal congestion and rhinorrhea

Physical exam findings
. mild tachypnea
. nasal muscosa edema
. no signs of consolidation

Diagnosis workup
. peak flow
. chest x-ray







發表文章時間2018/10/16 08:26pm IP: 已設定保密[本文共 12227 位元組]  
JuanFe 

 

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 2 Case investigation

Once you have documented the history and physical examination findings and liked the most likely diagnosis , you may list up to 8 diagnostic tests that are necessary to confirm the diagnosis (if any). These usually include basic laboratory tests and imaging studies , but other types of east (eg, biopsy, electrodiagnostic studies) can also be listed . In addition , you may include any physical examination maneuvers that are prohibited in Step 2 CS (eg, female breast examinationz0, but you should not include treatment options , referral/consultations , or patient dispositions (eg , admit to hospital ). If no tests are included , enter “: No studies indicated “ rather than leaving that section blank.

The following section include some of the most common diagnostic test (by system ) that would be recommended for evaluating the simulated patients in Step 2 CS . As you interview and examine the patients, refine your differential diagnosis and think of what tests you will need to rule in or rule out the various possibilities . Focus on the most likely diagnosis and the moist straightforward tests. List the most important tests first , and avid taking a “ shotgun “ a[[roach of ordering many low-yield tests to rule out unlikely possibilities.

General
. CBC (complete blood count)
. Electrolytes and glucose
. Inflammatory markers (ESR , CRP)
. HIV test

Head and neck
. X-ray (eg , cervical spine) , CT scan (eg, sinuses)
. Corneal reflex testing
. Audiometry and tympanometry
. Rapid streptococcal antigen test

CNS
. X-ray (eg, spine) , CT scan , MRI (eg, brain)
. LP (Lumbar puncture (eg , Gram stain , cell count , culture )
. Serum anvti-epiletic drug levels
. Carotid doppler study
. Electroencephalography
. Electromyography and nerve conduction studies

Musculoskeletal
. X-ray (eg,bone or joint)
. Joint aspiration ( eg, culture / sensitivity , cytology , crystals)
. HLA-B27
. Serum uric acid
. Serologic markers (eg , rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, antinuclear antibody)
. Muscle biopsy

Skin and breast
. Breast examination
. Monogram, breath ultrasound
. Skin biopsy
. Skin/ nail scraping for potassium hydroxide preparation

Cardiovascular system
. ECG
. Echocardiography
. Cardiac markers (eg, troponin [I or T])
. Chest x-ray
. Lipid profile
. High-sensitivity D-dimer

Respiratory
. Pulse oximetry (if not provided)
. Chest x-ray
. Chest CT
. Sputum studies (culture. sensitivity , Gram stain , acid-fast bacilli)
. Pulmonary function tests/spirometry
. Tuberculin skin test
. ABG (Arterial blood gas analysis)

Gastrointestinal / abdominal
. Liver transaminases (AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase) ALP alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin
. Pancreatic makers (eg ,limase amylase)
. Abdominal x-ray
. Ultrasound of abdomen
. CT scan of the abdomen/ pelvis
. Upper gastrointestinal series-barium swallow
. Lower gastrointestinal series -enema
. Endoscopy( esophagogastroduodenoscopy , colonoscopy)

Genitourinary
. Pelvic/ genitourinary examination
. Vaginal swab for wet mount , potassium hydroxide preparation
. DNA probe for gonorrhea , chlamydia
. Pelvic ultrasound (trasabdominal, transvaginal)
. Blood urea nitrogen , creatinine
. Urinalysis (and culture)
. Prostate-specific antigen
. Urine pregnancy test

Endocrine
. Fasting glucose
. Serum electrolytes and calcium
. Hemoglobin A1c
. TSH , free T4
. 24-hour urinary catecholamine and metabolites
. Urine for ketones , glucose
. Morning cortisol
. MRI of the pituitary

Psychiatry
. CT or MRI of the brain
. Urine toxicology (drug screen)
. Serum drug levels (eg, lithium)

Tips of effective ordering

. Do not order “ routine “ tests (eg, CBC, electrolytes) if they are not needed for diagnose and management.

. Avoid redundant tests
(eg , do not order nth ESR and CRP for inflammatory disorders [CRP is usually preferred ] ; do not order both amylase and lipase for pancreatitis [lipase is usually preferred])

. For autoimmune disorders , begin by ordering serologic markers with high sensitive ( eg , antinuclear antibody ) for the condition you are considering , rather than high-specific confirmatory test with lower sensitive (eg, anti-duple -strained DNA antibody)

. For suspected Helicobacter pylori disease , order a stool antigen or breath test rather than serology

. Serum uric acid levels may be normal doing acute gout attack ; order joint aspiration for cell count and crystals in the acute phase.

. Screen for diabetes mellitus with fasting glucose  or hemoglobin A1c . The glucose tolerance test is usually used in pregnant patients.

. For diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction , troponin (I or T) is elevated as soon or sooner than creatinine kinase or myoglobin , and is more specific . Troponin is preferred and ,ay be ordered alone

. Do not order imagining for low back pain of <6 weeks duration unless there is a history of significant trauma or ease to suspect serious disease (epidural abscess , bony metastasis , cauda equina syndrome)

. Do not order imaging for patient with uncomplicated acute rhino sinusitis

. For patients with a low probability for venous thromboembolism (deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism ) order a high-sensitivity D-dimer first rather than imaging studies

. For endocrine disorders , start with metabolic markers (eg ,hormone levels) prior to imaging (exception : pituitary adenoma with visual field defects / mass effect symptoms

Educational objective

List up to 8 diagnostic test that are necessary to confirm the diagnosis . DO not include treatment options , referral/consultations , or patient dispositions . As you interview and examine patients , refine your differential diagnosis ; focus on the most likely diagnoses and the most straightforward tests. List the most important tests first , and avoid taking a “ shotgun “ approach of ordering many low-yield tests to rule out unlikely possibilities.








發表文章時間2018/10/19 07:47am IP: 已設定保密[本文共 6208 位元組]  

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